The Oceans, rivers and groundwater

“The greatest unexplored space on our planet lies beneath the oceans. Yet rising CO2 levels in the atmosphere are causing acidification which disrupts food chains and marine habitats. Huge floating masses of plastic dumped in the oceans turn into hazardous waste that endangers not only marine life but also, indirectly, human populations – and the planet itself. Overfishing, illegal and damaging trawling practices and past whaling have emptied the oceans before we have even properly understood what riches they contain. And the great spaces of the oceans are the lungs of the planet.”
                                                                                                             Kofi Annan, 4th May 2017

Summary: Human impacts on marine environments

Throughout human existence we have relied on the oceans – for food, as a waste dump, for recreation, for economic opportunities and so on. However, it’s not only our activities in the marine environment that affect life in the sea – it’s also the things we do on land.

Editorial note: This article from Science Learning Hub gives a very good overview of the impact of humans on the world’s oceans, including overfishing, pollution, phytoplankton bloom, eutrophication, introduced species and ocean acidification

Link: https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/144-human-impacts-on-marine-environments

Summary: CNN Going Green: The plastic plague: Can our oceans be saved from environmental ruin? (09.2016)

Link: http://edition.cnn.com/2016/06/30/world/plastic-plague-oceans/index.html

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Oceans

Summary: Scientists study ocean absorption of human carbon pollution (09.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/climate-consensus-97-per-cent/2017/feb/16/scientists-study-ocean-absorption-of-human-carbon-pollution?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: The eco guide to microplastics (08.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/aug/06/the-eco-guide-to-microplastics?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: 6 of the World’s Most Endangered Coral Reefs (07.2017)

Coral reefs serve as a “canary in the coal mine” for the health of our planet. As land dwellers, we can’t see or feel the effects of climate change and other detrimental forces at work in the ocean, but coral reefs can. And, unfortunately, the ongoing changes occurring in the world’s most important reef ecosystems suggest that something is terribly wrong. Most recently under threat are the reefs protected by the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument

Link: http://www.care2.com/causes/6-of-the-worlds-most-endangered-coral-reefs.html

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Summary: Enjoy cod’s revival, but the extent of our ruination of the sea remains unknown (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2017/jul/22/enjoy-cods-revival-extent-of-our-ruination-of-seas-unknown?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Think you know what fish is in your sushi? Think again (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2017/jul/16/sushi-fish-tropical-species-mis-sold-restaurants-shops?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: A mission to the Pacific plastic patch (07.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-40584629

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Summary: Iceberg twice size of Luxembourg breaks off Antarctic ice shelf (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/12/giant-antarctic-iceberg-breaks-free-of-larsen-c-ice-shelf?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: ‘Make new rules’ to save the oceans (07.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-40572676

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Summary: Make or break moment for the oceans (06.2017)

The first United Nations Ocean Conference is being held this week to address ocean conditions and the ocean economy.

Link: http://edition.cnn.com/2017/06/07/opinions/decline-of-the-oceans-opinion-lind-tanzer/index.html

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Summary: Trump called ‘threat to every coastline’ as he pushes ocean drilling plan (06.2017)

Administration moves to ‘unleash’ US fossil fuels by rewriting Obama-era plan that banned drilling along Atlantic seaboard and large parts of the Arctic Ocean


Link:
 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/30/donald-trump-environment-ocean-drilling-atlantic-arctic?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary:  Marine expert warns of climate emergency as fish abandon tropical waters (06.2017)

Linkhttps://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/15/marine-expert-warns-of-climate-emergency-as-fish-abandon-tropical-waters?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Nine of world’s biggest fishing firms sign up to protect oceans (06.2017)

Linkhttps://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/jun/09/nine-of-worlds-biggest-fishing-firms-sign-up-to-protect-oceans?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Remote island has ‘world’s worst’ plastic rubbish density (05.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-australia-39931042

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Summary: Tiny uninhabited Pacific isle has 38 million pieces of trash (05.2017)

Link: http://www.dailyherald.com/article/20170516/news/305169978

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Summary: Great Pacific Garbage Patch – Pacific Trash Vortex – a soupy collection of marine debris—mostly plastics

Link: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/great-pacific-garbage-patch/

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Summary:  Back-to-back severe bleaching events have affected two-thirds of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, new aerial surveys have found. The findings have caused alarm among scientists, who say the proximity of the 2016 and 2017 bleaching events is unprecedented for the reef, and will give damaged coral little chance to recover.

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2017/apr/10/great-barrier-reef-terminal-stage-australia-scientists-despair-latest-coral-bleaching-data

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Summary: An account of how the Miami area is already taking precautions against sea level rising 

Link: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20170403-miamis-fight-against-sea-level-rise

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Rivers and groundwater

Summary: The Amazon effect: how deforestation is starving São Paulo of water (02.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/nov/28/sao-paulo-water-amazon-deforestation?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: The ambitious plan to stop the ground from sinking (12.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20171130-the-ambitious-plan-to-stop-the-ground-from-sinking?ocid=ww.social.link.email

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Summary: National Geographic: Global Climate Change, Melting Glaciers (09.2017)

Link: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/big-thaw/

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Summary: Arsenic in water puts up to 60 million in Pakistan at risk (08.2017)

Link: http://www.cnn.com/2017/08/24/health/arsenic-water-indus-plain-pakistan/index.html

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Summary: New swimming spot on Paris canal closed due to pollution (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/25/new-swimming-spot-on-paris-canal-closed-due-to-pollution?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Paris plunge: daily queues after city opens cleaned-up canal to swimmers (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2017/jul/22/paris-queues-clean-canal-swimmers-villette-seine?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Murder most foul: polluted Indian river given ‘living entity’ status but reported dead [article + video] (07.2017)

Link: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/jul/07/indian-yamuna-river-living-entity-ganges?CMP=share_btn_link

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Summary: Raw waste water use on farms is ‘50% higher’ than estimated (07.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-40494254

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Summary: Moscow’s clean up cruise (07.2017)

Link: http://www.bbc.com/news/av/world-europe-40498184/moscow-s-clean-up-cruise

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Summary: Ganga Is Second-Most Polluting River In The World, Spewing 115,000 Tonnes Of Plastic Each Year (06.2017)

Waste plastic that’s dumped in rivers across the world end up in our oceans every day, becoming on of the major sources of marine pollution. A recent study now claims that Asian countries are the biggest culprits when it comes to polluting our waterways.

Link: http://www.indiatimes.com/technology/news/ganga-is-second-most-polluting-river-in-the-world-spewing-115-000-tonnes-of-plastic-each-year-323479.html

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Summary: Sky News: Special Report: A Plastic Tide | #OceanRescue  (01.2017)

More than eight million tonnes of plastic is thrown away each year and washed out to sea. It takes centuries to break down. It’s eaten by marine creatures. And it’s in our food chain. Your seafood supper may have a synthetic garnish. Scientists just don’t know what effects it has on our health. Sky Ocean Rescue is doing something about it.

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D35YnZ7_WxM

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Summary: Raw SEWAGE pours into Rio’s Guanabara Bay as athletes are warned to shower straight after leaving the water and paramedics wait on the shore to treat cuts (08.2016)


Link: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-3720802/Rio-Olympics-pollution-problem-worsens-raw-sewage-pours-Guanabara-Bay.html

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Summary: This Is What Rio’s Terrible Pollution Looks Like On the Ground (08.2016)

Link: http://time.com/4438147/rio2016-olympicsguanabarabaypollution/

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Summary: What’s in Rio’s Bay and Beaches? (08.2016)

Link: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/08/what-s-in-rio-s-bay-/

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Summary: What It Takes to Clean the Ganges (07.2016)

More than a billion gallons of waste enter the river every day. Can India’s controversial Prime Minister save it?

Link: http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2016/07/25/what-it-takes-to-clean-the-ganges

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Summary: India’s dying mother (05.2016)

The Ganges is one of the greatest rivers on Earth, but it is dying. From the icy Himalayan peaks, where it begins, right down to the Bay of Bengal, it is being slowly poisoned. The Ganges is revered in India but it is also the sewer that carries away the waste from the 450 million people who live in its catchment area.

Link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3882159.stm

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Summary: A cleaner Anacostia River for Washington  (01.2015)

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JfA_Y9zcVFo&feature=youtu.be

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Summary: Japan’s Pollution Experience: Bringing Water Back to Life  (10.2009)

Many developing countries in Asia face challenges in providing clean drinking water and safe sanitation to all their people. Japan experienced similar situation when it rushed into economic development four decades ago. Untreated discharges from factories and homes polluted the rivers and lakes became so contaminated that even mosquito could not survive. The Minamata Disease and other illnesses caused by polluted water were major topics in the 1960s and 1970s, which raised awareness among the people and companies.

Stricter regulation and penalties on industrial waste water discharges forced Japanese industry to treat and purify waste water. These also spurred development of water disposal technologies. Meanwhile, households started using soap instead of chemical detergents. This originated in the Biwa Lake area, Japan’s largest lake, to prevent the lake from eutrophication.

Both people and factories learned that controlling pollution at the sources is the best way of cleaning water. Freshwater fish slowly returned to the Tama river in the Tokyo Metropolitan area. But there are still problems like eutrophication of lakes, which shows how hard it is to restore aquatic ecosystems once polluted.

Link: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kjfbhDBapzY&feature=youtu.be

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Summary: Pollution ‘changes sex of fish’ (07.2004)

Link: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/3882159.stm

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